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gg修改器826免root_免费GG修改器
  • gg修改器826免root_免费GG修改器

  • 大小:11.31MB日期:2022年9月13日 20:55:23
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本文介绍常用Docker命令,以搭建Web服务器Nginx为例介绍docker相关命令。Docker的安装方法可参考:

基本命令

查看Docker版本信息:

$ docker version

查看Docker系统信息:

$ docker info

从Docker Hub查找镜像

$ docker search 镜像名
# 搜索nginx镜像
$ docker search nginx

拉取镜像

$ docker pull nginx

[root@server server]# docker pull nginx
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from library/nginx
a076a628af6f: plete
0732ab25fa22: plete
d7f36f6fe38f: plete
f72584a26f32: plete
7125e4df9063: plete
Digest: sha256:10b8cc432d56da8b61b070f4c7d2543a9ed17c2b23010b43af434fd40e2ca4aa
Status: Downloaded newer image for nginx:latest
docker.io/library/nginx:latest
[root@server server]#

下载指定版本的镜像

$ docker pull nginx:1.19.6

镜像的可用版本可在docker hub中查看:https://hub./ :

镜像管理

查看所有已下载镜像

$ docker images

[root@server server]# docker images
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
nginx latest f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
app v1 db282454f6b3 7 months ago 83.1MB
<none> <none> 1acc89e1a291 7 months ago 152MB
bitnami/mariadb latest 08498502c6b7 7 months ago 319MB
bitnami/testlink latest 41feee91d195 7 months ago 826MB
prom/prometheus latest 39d1866a438a 7 months ago 142MB
mysql 5.7 9cfcce23593a 7 months ago 448MB
python 3.7-alpine 6a5ca85ed89b 8 months ago 72.5MB
jenkins/jenkins lts 5d1103b93f92 8 months ago 656MB
[root@server server]#

删除镜像

$ docker rmi nginx:latest
# 或者使用IMAGE ID
$ docker rmi f6d0b4767a6c
# 强制删除镜像
$ docker rmi -f f6d0b4767a6c

标记本地镜像

$ docker tag nginx:latest nginx:test
# 修改镜像名称
$ docker tag nginx:latest nginx_test

[root@server server]# docker images
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
nginx latest f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
nginx test f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
[root@server server]# docker tag nginx:latest nginx_test
REPOSITORY TAG IMAGE ID CREATED SIZE
nginx latest f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
nginx test f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
nginx_test latest f6d0b4767a6c 3 weeks ago 133MB
[root@server server]# docker rmi nginx:test
Untagged: nginx:test
[root@server server]# docker rmi nginx_test:latest
Untagged: nginx_test:latest

将指定镜像打包成 tar 归档文件

$ docker save nginx > nginx_test.tar
$ docker save nginx -o nginx_test.tar

导入打包的镜像

$ docker load < nginx_test.tar

查看镜像创建历史

$ docker history nginx

容器管理

运行容器

# 开启nginx服务
$ docker run -p 80:80 -d --name=nginx nginx:latest

-d: 后台运行容器,并返回容器ID
–name: 为容器指定一个名称
-p: 指定端口映射:主机(宿主)端口:容器端口
-v:挂载目录,将主机的目录映射到容器目录

[root@server server]# docker run -p 80:80 -d --name=nginx nginx:latest
651ce76dd80fa58e3cdf2abeb9c08662bfcf68176738bb3881d0bcb851aa1a11
[root@server server]#

浏览器输入服务器IP地址

挂载目录

# 将主机目录/home/server/nginx/html映射到容器目录/usr/share/nginx/html
$ docker run -p 80:80 -d --name=nginx -v /home/server/nginx/html:/usr/share/nginx/html nginx:latest

在主机目录/home/server/nginx/html下新建一个index.html文件,输入内容:<h1>Hello World !</h1>

[root@server server]# cd /home/haiyong/nginx/html
[root@server html]# vim index.html
[root@server html]# cat index.html
<h1>Hello World !</h1>
[root@server html]#

浏览器刷新

查看运行的容器:

$ docker ps
$ docker ps -a

[root@server server]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
651ce76dd80f nginx:latest "/docker-entrypoint.…" 6 minutes ago Up 6 minutes 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp nginx
[root@server server]# docker ps -a
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
651ce76dd80f nginx:latest "/docker-entrypoint.…" 8 minutes ago Up 7 minutes 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp nginx
3bab7ac2a2af jenkins/jenkins:lts "/sbin/tini -- /usr/…" 6 months ago Exited (255) 8 days ago 0.0.0.0:8080->8080/tcp, 0.0.0.0:50000->50000/tcp jenkins
2c5ae10a7543 mysql:5.7 "docker-entrypoint.s…" 6 months ago Exited (255) 8 days ago 0.0.0.0:3306->3306/tcp, 33060/tcp mysql-test
[root@server server]#

查看容器中运行的进程

$ docker top nginx

[root@server server]# docker top nginx
UID PID PPID C STIME TTY TIME CMD
root 118225 118205 0 22:58 ? 00:00:00 nginx: master process nginx -g daemon off;
101 118284 118225 0 22:58 ? 00:00:00 nginx: worker process

实时监控容器资源消耗

$ docker stats nginx

[root@server server]# docker stats nginx
CONTAINER ID NAME CPU % MEM USAGE / LIMIT MEM % NET I/O BLOCK I/O PIDS
651ce76dd80f nginx 0.00% 1.492MiB / 1.777GiB 0.08% 3.97kB / 3.66kB 73.7kB / 24.6kB 2
CONTAINER ID NAME CPU % MEM USAGE / LIMIT MEM % NET I/O BLOCK I/O PIDS
651ce76dd80f nginx 0.00% 1.492MiB / 1.777GiB 0.08% 3.97kB / 3.66kB 73.7kB / 24.6kB 2
CONTAINER ID NAME CPU % MEM USAGE / LIMIT MEM % NET I/O BLOCK I/O PIDS
651ce76dd80f nginx 0.00% 1.492MiB / 1.777GiB 0.08% 3.97kB / 3.66kB 73.7kB / 24.6kB 2
CONTAINER ID NAME CPU % MEM USAGE / LIMIT MEM % NET I/O BLOCK I/O PIDS

查看容器日志

$ docker logs -f nginx

获取容器/镜像的元信息

$ docker inspect nginx
$ docker inspect -f ’{{.Id}}’ nginx

-f : 格式化字符串,输出格式使用Go语言模板。

[root@server server]# docker inspect nginx
[
{
"Id": "651ce76dd80fa58e3cdf2abeb9c08662bfcf68176738bb3881d0bcb851aa1a11",
"Created": "2021-02-02T14:58:47.047835997Z",
"Path": "/docker-entrypoint.sh",
"Args": [
"nginx",
"-g",
"daemon off;"
],
"State": {
"Status": "running",
"Running": true,
"Paused": false,
"Restarting": false,
"OOMKilled": false,
"Dead": false,
"Pid": 118225,
"ExitCode": 0,
"Error": "",
"StartedAt": "2021-02-02T14:58:48.290043299Z",
"FinishedAt": "0001-01-01T00:00:00Z"
},
............................
[root@server server]# docker inspect -f ’{{.Id}}’ nginx
651ce76dd80fa58e3cdf2abeb9c08662bfcf68176738bb3881d0bcb851aa1a11

[root@server server]# docker inspect -f ’{{.State.StartedAt}}’ nginx
2021-02-02T14:58:48.290043299Z

docker inspect返回的容器信息中记录了容器的磁盘挂载目录,可以使用grep命令筛选出Mounts字段内容:

$ docker inspect nginx | grep Mounts -A 10
"Mounts": [
{
"Type": "bind",
"Source": "/home/server/nginx/html",
"Destination": "/usr/share/nginx/html",
"Mode": "",
"RW": true,
"Propagation": "rprivate"
}
],
"Config": {

查看容器内文件结构及更改

$ docker diff nginx

[root@server server]# docker diff webserver
C /etc
C /etc/nginx
C /etc/nginx/conf.d
C /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf
C /root
A /root/.bash_history
C /var
C /var/cache
C /var/cache/nginx
A /var/cache/nginx/client_temp
A /var/cache/nginx/fastcgi_temp
A /var/cache/nginx/proxy_temp
A /var/cache/nginx/scgi_temp
A /var/cache/nginx/uwsgi_temp
C /run
A /run/nginx.pid

A:添加了文件或目录
B:文件或目录被删除
C:文件或目录被修改

启动,停止容器运行

# 启动已经被停止的容器
$ docker start nginx

# 重启容器
$ docker restart nginx

# 暂停容器中所有的进程
$ docker pause nginx

# 恢复容器中所有的进程
$ docker unpause nginx# 杀掉一个运行中的容器
$ docker kill nginx

# 停止一个运行中的容器
$ docker stop nginx

# 删除容器
$ docker rm nginx

# 强制删除容器
$ docker rm -f nginx

[root@server server]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
651ce76dd80f nginx:latest "/docker-entrypoint.…" 21 hours ago Up 21 hours 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp nginx
[root@server server]# docker stop nginx
nginx
[root@server server]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
[root@server server]# docker start nginx
nginx
[root@server server]# docker ps
CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES
651ce76dd80f nginx:latest "/docker-entrypoint.…" 21 hours ago Up 1 second 0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp nginx
[root@server server]# docker rm nginx
Error response from daemon: You cannot remove a running container 651ce76dd80fa58e3cdf2abeb9c08662bfcf68176738bb3881d0bcb851aa1a11. Stop the container before attempting removal or force remove
[root@server server]# docker stop nginx
nginx
[root@server server]# docker rm nginx
nginx
[root@server server]# docker start nginx
Error response from daemon: No such container: nginx
Error: failed to start containers: nginx
[root@server server]# docker run -p 80:80 -d --name=nginx nginx:latest
e0abbac7464794b5f2fbd328b841aaa83ffeff6c2072324b584cbbee4c68c36f

容器交互

在容器中执行命令

$ docker exec -it nginx ls
# 开启一个交互模式的终端,exit退出
$ docker exec -it nginx bash
# 使用root账号进入容器
$ docker exec -it -u root nginx bash

[root@server server]# docker exec -it nginx ls
bin docker-entrypoint.d home media proc sbin tmp
boot docker-entrypoint.sh lib mnt root srv usr
dev etc lib64 opt run sys var
[root@server server]# docker exec -it nginx echo "test"
test
[root@server server]# docker exec -it nginx bash
root@ad4c10c7cec2:/# ls
bin dev docker-entrypoint.sh home lib64 mnt proc run srv tmp var
boot docker-entrypoint.d etc lib media opt root sbin sys usr
root@ad4c10c7cec2:/# exit
exit
[root@haiyong haiyong]#

复制文件

# 将容器文件拷贝到主机
$ docker cp nginx:/etc/hosts hosts

# 将主机文件拷贝到容器中
$ docker cp hosts nginx:/etc/hosts

–THE END–

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